Get the full story of the microbiome
Microbial volume and diversity is essential.
The gut microbiome—the microbial community in the intestinal tract—is an influencer of metabolism and immunity and a mediator of resistance to some pathogenic infections.1
A distinct and essential organ within the human body, the gut microbiome contains an estimated 500-1000 species and 100 trillion organisms, encoding 100-fold more unique genes than our own genome.1-4
In its balanced state, there is a symbiotic relationship between luminal bacteria and our human cells.5
These cells communicate and form long-lasting, interactive associations that play a vital role in conservation of mucosal immune function, epithelial barrier integrity, motility, and nutrient absorption.5-7
Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are most prevalent in the gut microbime and work symbiotically8-10
Their ability to adapt and persist in changing gut environments allows abundance and stability,8,11-13 providing long-term associations with human hosts and enabling functions that include8..
- Immunomodulatory effects8,a
- Inhibitory activities against C. diff and reduction of colonization14,a,b
Composed of helpful and harmful bacteria,2,15 Firmicutes are the most abundant and diverse bacterial gut species,2 with functions that include:
- Anti-inflammatory effects16-18,c
- Fortification of gut barrier (along with other bacteria)19-21,b
C. diff infection can be more
dangerous when it recurs.
Can the power of the microbiome help
change the course of treatment?
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- Gilbert JA, Blaser MJ, Caporaso JG, et al. Current understanding of the human microbiome. Nat Med. 2018;24(4):392-400.
- Antharam VC, Li EC, Ishmael A, et al. Intestinal dysbiosis and depletion of butyrogenic bacteria in Clostridium difficile infection and nosocomial diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(9):2884-2892.
- Thursby E, Juge N. Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochem J. 2017;474(11):1823-1836.
- Marchesi JR, Adams DH, Fava F, et al. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier. Gut. 2016;65(2):330-339.
- Bien J, Palagani V, Bozko P. The intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and Clostridium difficile infection: is there a relationship with inflammatory bowel disease? Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013;6(1):53-68.
- Ley R, Hamady M, Lozupone C, et al. Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes. Science. 2008;320(5883):1647-1651.
- Mazmanian S, Liu C, Tzianabos A, Kasper D. An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system. Cell. 2005;122(1):107-118.
- Wexler AG, Goodman AL. An insider’s perspective: Bacteroides as a window into the microbiome. Nat Microbiol. 2017;2(1):17115.
- Rinninella E, Raoul P, Cintoni M, et al. What is the healthy gut microbiota composition? A changing ecosystem across age, environment, diet, and diseases. Microorganisms. 2019;(7)1:14.
- Nishijima S, Suda W, Oshima K, et al. The gut microbiome of healthy Japanese and its microbial and functional uniqueness. DNA Res. 2016;23(2)(Suppl Table S6).
https://academic.oup.com/dnaresearch/article/23/2/125/1745357#supplementary-data. Accessed September 5, 2021.
- Gill SR, Pop M, Deboy RT, et al. Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome. Science. 2006;312(5778):1355-1359.
- Kurokawa K, Itoh T, Kuwahara T, et al. Comparative metagenomics revealed commonly enriched gene sets in human gut microbiomes. DNA Res. 2007;14(4):169-181.
- Faith JJ, Guruge JL, Charbonneau M, et al. The long-term stability of the human gut microbiota. Science. 2013;341(6141):1237439.
- Li X, Kang Y, Huang Y, et al. A strain of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron attenuates colonization of Clostridioides difficile and affects intestinal microbiota and bile acids profile in a mouse model. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021;137:111290.
- Kho ZY, Lal SK. The human gut microbiome—a potential controller of wellness and disease. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:1835.
- Sokol H, Pigneur B, Watterlot L, et al. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(43):16731-16736.
- Willing BP, Dicksved J, Halfvarson J, et al. A pyrosequencing study in twins shows that gastrointestinal microbial profiles vary with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(6):1844-1854.e1.
- Machiels K, Joossens M, Sabino J, et al. A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gut. 2014;63(8):1275-1283.
- Paust S, Lu L, Mccarty N, Cantor H. Engagement of B7 on effector T cells by regulatory T cells prevents autoimmune disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(28):10398-10403.
- El Aidy S, van Baarlen P, Derrien M, et al. Temporal and spatial interplay of microbiota and intestinal mucosa drive establishment of immune homeostasis in conventionalized mice. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5(5):567-579.
- Lawley TD, Walker AW. Intestinal colonization resistance. Immunology. 2013;138(1):1-11.
- Martens EC, Koropatkin NM, Smith TJ, Gordon JI. Complex glycan catabolism by the human gut microbiota: the bacteroidetes Sus-like paradigm. J Biol Chem. 2009;284(37):24673-24677.